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Apparel Glossary
The following is a list of terms frequently used in the promotional/apparel industry:

Appliqué - a separate, pre-cut piece of fabric that is decorated (or decorated and then cut), then applied to another piece of fabric, typically a garment.

Back locker pad - an additional piece of material that is sewn on the back of a shirt beneath the collar. It is semi-circular in shape and is designed to add strength to the area of the shirt that will experience stress from being hung from its hanger loop or simply hung by its collar from a locker hook, etc.

Bird's eye - a two-color fabric design associated with double-knit fabric. (Production note: insert small, very close-up pic of the fabric of #403)

Breathable - when a fabric allows vapors to pass through its fibers.

Buckram - a stiff backing fabric that is often used to facilitate embroidery and add structure to cap fronts.

Chambray - a lightweight woven cotton fabric used for shirts and linings.

Collars: there are several, a few follow here:

• Crewneck - this type of collar is considered a "collarless" look on a shirt, which is characterized by a cuff-like, rounded finish.

• Shawl - a turned-over, continuous collar that drapes down slightly in the front.

• V-neck - a collar that is cut in the shape of the letter "V".

• Turtleneck - a tubular (some have seams in the back), close-fitting collar that covers the neck. Because of its length, it is worn either turned over or scrunched down on the neck.

• Mock-turtle - like a turtleneck, but this collar sits lower on the neck, does not fit as close and is not designed to be turned down.

Colorfast - a term referring to the permanence and durability of the color of a fabric or print. A colorfast garment, embroidered design or screen print is usually fade- and run-resistant when exposed to washing, abrasion and the sun.

Combed cotton - cotton fibers that have undergone an additional processing step beyond carding (the basic pre-spinning procedure that produces uniform, continuous strands of fiber). The combing process produces fibers that are more uniform in diameter, which make a more desirable and expensive yarn.

Corduroy - a durable woven cotton fabric that is often used in its medium-weight form for items such as shirts, slacks, jackets and trim. Its most recognizable characteristic is its lengthwise wales (also known as cords).

Cover-stitch - double-needle stitch that is used to secure seams while also lending a finished look. Cover stitching is often found around armholes and the cuffs common to knit shirts. (Production note: insert small, very close-up pic of the stitching on the cuff of #407)

Cut - refers to the number of needles per inch on a circular-knitting machine. A machine with 22 needles per inch produces a 22-cut fabric. Higher cuts equate to finer fabrics.

Denim - woven cotton fabric, usually of medium weight, that is commonly used for making shirts, slacks and jackets. Indigo blue is its traditional color.

Digitize - to translate a graphic design or text into computer language (digital values) for output from computerized embroidery machines onto substrates.

Dimensional stability - refers to the tendency of a garment to shrink or distort after washing. A garment that is dimensionally stable is one that is likely to maintain its intended shape through many washings.

Double-needle hem - much like a cover-stitch in which two rows of stitching are sewn parallel to each other. This technique is used to securely hem a garment and give it a more finished appearance.

Drop tail - an extension of the back panel of a shirt at the point of the separation of side vents. The effect is designed for functionality rather than form as it helps the shirt stay tucked in during movement. (Production note: insert small, very close-up pic of the side vents [bottom] of #445)

Face - the most attractive side of a fabric; the side of the fabric that makes up the outside of a garment; most suitable for decoration.

Fill (embroidery) - a large design area typically covered by a series of running stitches, the pattern of which may be varied in terms of stitch length, angle and density.

Fleece - originally referring only to sheep's wool, this type of fabric is now made of other natural and synthetic fibers and can be woven or knitted. It is typically thick with a napped or pile inner surface and is often used for jackets and sweatshirts.

Forward shoulders - the positioning of shoulder seams so they don't lie directly across the top of the shoulders. Rather, the seams lie slightly forward. This prevents the neck from falling backwards, making an uncomfortable fit for the wearer.

Garment-dyed - when a garment is dyed after it has been manufactured. This produces variation in color throughout an individual garment and from garment to garment, even if they're part of the same dye-lot. It's usually considered a more casual look.

Hand - how a fabric or print feels. The term is usually modified by an adjective such as soft, rough, firm, medium, etc.

High-density printing - a screen-printing technique that uses thick layers of ink to achieve a three-dimensional look and feel.

Hoop (or frame) - device used to stabilize the fabric in that area of substrate to be embroidered; typically composed of two concentric, wood or plastic rings, the inner of which fits tightly within the outer-with the fabric in between-stabilizing the fabric and holding it in close contact with the machine bed during embroidery.

Interfacing - a stiff material that is placed between two pieces of fabric to add shape to certain areas of a garment. It's often used in the collars and plackets of shirts made of woven fabric.

Interlock knit - a fabric created when two single-faced knits (i.e., jersey knit) are knitted together, or interlocked, to form one piece of fabric. Both sides of the fabric look and feel the same. It has a very soft hand and good decorating surface for embroidery as well as screen-printing.

Jacquard - a fabric made on a special type of loom (a Jacquard loom) which allows for the creation of intricate patterns.

Jersey knit - a single-faced knitted fabric that is the primary fabric used for T-shirts. The knit stitch on its face (front) side is called the plain stitch; the stitch on the opposite (back) side is called the purl stitch.

Lyocell - a fabric made from wood pulp.

Mercerize - to process yarn or fabric to give it luster and added strength.

Micro-fiber - a woven fabric that is made of synthetic yarn that is thinner than a standard strand of silk yarn.

Oversized - when a garment is intentionally cut larger than the standard size.

Oxford - a lightweight woven fabric that is usually made of cotton. It is most commonly used for shirts.

Panel/piece program - when a manufacturer sends out unfinished pieces of a garment or other item to be embroidered before it is sewn into the finished product.

PFD - Prepared For Dyeing, which refers to a garment or other item that is specifically made to be dyed after finishing.

Piece-dyed - dyeing that occurs after a fabric is made (knitted or woven), but before it is cut from its roll.

Piqué knit - this type of knit fabric is popularly used in its medium to heavyweight form for placket shirts. It can be easily recognized by its honeycomb or waffle-like surface appearance.

Plackets - there are three types:

• Set-on - a separate piece of fabric, making the placket, is sewn onto the shirt.

• Allansolly - a set-on placket, but it is sewn to the inside of the garment. The face of the placket is made of the front of the shirt.

• Henley - no separate piece of fabric is attached, the fabric of the shirt itself is folded back and tacked at the bottom.

Puckering (embroidery) - gathering of fabric due to its tension being less than that of the stitches, which is typically due to improper thread tension, inadequate hooping or inappropriate backing.

Registration - the proper relationship and alignment of all colors, stitches (in the case of embroidery) and other elements in a design.

Reinforced box - a square sewn at the bottom of a placket to add strength to that area.

Rib fabric - a type of knitted fabric that features a vertical "striped" texture.

Side vents - slits in the bottom side seams of a shirt. (See drop tail)

Single-needle hem - A single row of stitches used to hem a garment. Typically not found on better garments because of its lack of finished appearance

Stock design - similar to clip art, a "generic" embroidery, screen-print or heat-transfer design. For embroidery, this means it's available in digital format at a lower cost than a custom-digitized design.

Taped neck/shoulders - referring to a quarter-inch of fabric that is sewn over the inside seams of a shirt's neck and shoulders. Not only is it considered a more finished look on garments, it also secures the seams and helps maintain shape.

Tricot - a class of knitted fabric that is made from filament or textured yarn. Characteristically, it is dimensionally stable and is often used for swimwear, foundation wear and garments intended for activities such as running and dance.

Twill - a type of weave that is characterized by diagonal patterns throughout the fabric.

Waterproof - when a fabric is impermeable to wetness. It should be noted that a garment can't be waterproof unless its outwardly exposed seams are sealed. Also, it is difficult, if not impossible, to screen print on this type of fabric.

Water-repellent - when a fabric is air-permeable, but blocks the passage of liquid to a certain degree. Fabrics are treated with a type of finish to achieve this effect. Like waterproof fabric, it is very difficult to print on this type of fabric.

Weight - (also known as yield) expressed in terms of ounces per square yard of fabric. Generally, fabrics weighing less than 4 oz. are considered lightweight, while medium weight is from 4 to 5 oz. and heavyweight is 5 to 6 oz. (although these weight categories vary from fabric to fabric).

Welt cuffs - achieved when the fabric of the sleeve is folded over and sewn down.

Yarn-dyed - dyeing that occurs at the yarn stage, before it is made into fabric.
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